I will try to answer these in the order that you posted them.
If you entered the value by hand there is no need to use the lightning bolt, this is available to you in case you get the value from a dynamic source.
You are correct, this value just needs to match where you have the pem file and the name of it.
You should not worry about the values at the top of the file, they are just declared here so this is fine.
It sounds like you are configuring things correctly, in your admin area did you the payment gateway option to 'none'? If you did this could be the reason you are seeing the checkout form the way that it is. You might want to try backing up all of the files that you have for your checkout and running the wizard again, this might help to get things working correctly. Post back and let us know what the result is for you.