I am using the standard chrome settings, I installed chrome and have not made any modifications to the settings.
The only way I can reproduce the behavior you are describing is to leave a field unfilled in the checkout form.
are you using server validation for the checkout?
if so, try adding a validation sow if message for each field in the form rather than just using one generic message, this way you can pinpoint which validation is causing the failure more easily.
for each validation that is set up in the server validation behavior, add an error to the page next to that element, then select it and add a validation show if behavior, chose the validation failure to trigger the message and click the plus button.