Yes. Add a column to your cart for "CATaxable" and set it to 1 or 0 when they add to the cart based on whether it is shipped from CA.
Then you can use that to creat a rule:
CATaxAmount = [Price] * [Quantity] * [CATaxable]
Then you can use the CATaxAmount when creating your tax rule which will be zero for all items that aren't taxable.... hopefully that makes sense, should be doable pretty easily.