The problem with the menu is that you are missing the extra attributes that are normally present by default. If you have altered this you should take a look at the or original unmodified menu files to see what these links should look like. They should be passing along a category id and a search parameter like this:
This would allow it to display a particular category and is the default behavior of the menu.
As for the item not showing up it looks like it is the correct id for an item, in your products table in the db look at a particular item as an example and examine the product stock, product unlimited, and product live columns. A 1 in live or unlimited indicates true. If it is not unlimited there will need to be a stock associated with it.